Vocabulary Basics: Word Families - Page Page 3 (R-V)

This section of EnhanceMyVocabulary.com is all about learning new vocabulary by studying groups of words that share common roots


A significant aid to learning new vocabulary is to study groups of words that share common roots. Following is a list of such words preceded by their root.

In each set you'll find (1.) a list of fairly familiar words that embody the root and (2.) a list of less familiar words that embody it.


R roga (ask)
1. Abrogate, arrogate, interrogate, arrogant, derogatory, prerogative;
2. surrogate, rogation, prorogue.

Rupt (break)
(1 and 2 combined) Rupture, abrupt, interrupt, disrupt, eruption, incorruptible, irruption, bankrupt, rout, route, routine.


S Sal (salt)
1. Salmon, sally, assail, assault, insult, consult, result, exultation, desultory;
2. salient, salacious, resilient.

Scien (knowledge)
1. Science, conscience, unconscious, prescience, omniscience, nice;
2. sciolist, adscititious, plebiscite.

Sect (cut)
1. Sect, section, non-sectarian, dissect, insect, intersection, sickle, vivisection, segment;
2. bisect, trisect, insection, sector, secant.

Sed, sid(e), sess (seat)
1. Sedulous, sedentary, supersede, subside, preside, reside, residue, possess, assessment, session, seige;
2. sediment, insidious, assiduous, subsidy, obsession, see (noun), assize.

sent (feeling)
1. Sense, consent, assent, resent, sentimental, dissension, sensation, sensibility, sentence, scent, nonsense;
2. sentient, consensus, presentiment.

Sequ, secu, sue (follow)
1. Sequel, sequence, consequence, subsequent, consecutive, execute, prosecute, persecute, sue, ensue, suitor, suitable, pursuit, rescue, second;
2. obsequies, obsequious, sequester, inconsequential, non sequitur, executor, suite.

Shear, share, shore (cut, separate)
(1 and 2 combined) Shear, sheer, shred, share, shard, scar, score, (sea) shore, shorn, shroud, shire, sheriff.

Sign (sign)
1. Sign, signal, signify, signature, consign, design, assign, designate, resignation, insignificant;
2. ensign, signatory, insignia.

Solve, solu (loosen)
1. Solve, resolve, dissolve, solution, dissolute, resolute, absolute;
2. solvent, absolution, indissoluble, assoil.

Spec(t), spic(e) (look)
1. Spectator, spectacle, suspect, aspect, prospect, expect, respectable, disrespect, inspection, speculate, special, especial, species, specify, specimen, spice, suspicion, conspicuous, despise, despite, spite;
2. specter, spectrum, spectroscope, prospector, prospectus, introspection, retrospect, circumspectly, conspectus, perspective, specie, specification, specious, despicable, auspices, perspicacity, frontispiece, respite.

Spire, spirit (breathe, breath)
(1 and 2 combined) Spirit, spiritual, perspire, transpire, respire, aspire, conspiracy, inspiration, expiration, esprit de corps.

Sponsa (bride)
1. Despond, respond, correspond, corespondent, sponsor;
2. sponsion, spouse, espouse.

Sta, sti(t), sist (stand)
1. Stand, stage, statue, stall, stationary, state, reinstate, station, forestall, instant, instance, distance, constant, withstand, understand, circumstance, estate, establish, substance, obstacle, obstinate, destiny, destination, destitute, substitute, superstition, desist, persist, resist, insist, assist, exist, consistent, stead, rest, restore, restaurant, contrast;
2. stature, statute, stadium, stability, instable, static, statistics, ecstasy, stamen, stamina, standard, stanza, stanchion, capstan, extant, constabulary, apostate, transubstantiation, status quo, armistice, solstice, interstice, institute, restitution, constituent, subsistence, pre-existence, presto.

Stead (place)
(1 and 2 combined) Stead, steadfast, instead, homestead, farmstead, roadstead, bestead.

Strict, string, strain (bind)
1. District, restrict, strictly, stringent, strain, restrain, constrain;
2. stricture, constriction, boa constrictor, astringent, strait, stress.

Struct (build)
(1 and 2 combined) Structure, instructor, construct, obstruct, instrument, destructive, misconstrue.


T Tact, tang, tain, ting, teg (touch)
1. Tact, contact, intact, intangible, attain, taint, stain, tinge, contingent, integrity, entire, tint;
2. tactile, tactual, tangent, distain, attaint, attainder, integer, disintegrate, contagion, contaminate, contiguous.

Tail (cut)
(1 and 2 combined) Detail, curtail, entail, retail, tailor, tally.

Tain (hold)
(1 and 2 combined) Tenant, tenement, tenure, tenet, tenor, tenable, tenacious, contents, contentment, lieutenant, maintenance, sustenance, countenance, appurtenance, detention, retentive, pertinacity, pertinent, continent, abstinence, continuous, retinue, detain, abstain, contain, obtain, maintain, entertain, pertain, appertain, sustain, retain.

Ten (stretching)
(1 and 2 combined) Tend, tender, tendon, tendril, tendency, extend, subtend, distend, pretend, contend, attendant, tense, tension, pretence, intense, intensive, ostensible, tent, tenterhook, portent, attention, intention, tenuous, attenuate, extenuate, antenna, tone, tonic, standard.

Term, termin (end, bound)
(1 and 2 combined) Term, terminus, terminal, terminate, determine, indeterminate, interminable, exterminate.

Terra (earth)
1. Terrace, territory, subterranean, inter, terrier;
2. terrene, tureen, terrestrial, terra cotta, Mediterranean, terra firma, parterre.

1. Thesis, parenthesis, antithesis, anathema, theme, epithet, treasure;
2. hypothesis, synthesis, metathesis.

Tort (twist)
1. Torture, tortoise, retort, contort, distortion, extortionate, torch, (apple) tart, truss, nasturtium;
2. tort, tortuous, torsion, Dry Tortugas.

Tract, tra(i) (draw)
1. Tract, tractor, intractable, abstracted, retract, protract, detract, distract, attractive, contractor, trace, trail, train, trait, portray, retreat;
2. traction, tractate, distraught, extraction, subtraction.

Tum (swelling)
(1 and 2 combined) Tumor, tumidity, tumult, tumulus, contumacy.

Turb (crowd, disturbance)
(1 and 2 combined) Turbid, disturb, perturbation, turbulence, trouble, imperturbable.


V Vad (go)
(1 and 2 combined) Pervade, invade, evasion, vade mecum.

Vale (health)
1. Avail, prevail, prevalent, equivalent, valiant, validity, invalid, invalidate;
2. valetudinarian, valediction, valence.

Vene, vent (come)
1. Convene, convenient, avenue, revenue, prevent, event, inventor, adventure, convention, circumvent;
2. venire, venue, parvenu, advent, adventitious, convent, preventive, eventuate, intervention.

Vert, vers(e) (turn)
1. Avert, divert, convert, invert, pervert, advertize, inadvertent, verse, aversion, adverse, adversity, adversary, version, anniversary, versatile, divers, diversity, conversation, perverse, universe, university, traverse, subversive, divorce;
2. vertebra, vertigo, controvert, revert, averse, versus, versification, animadversion, vice versa, controversy, tergiversation, obverse, transverse, reversion, vortex.

Vince, vict (conquer)
(1 and 2 combined) Evince, convince, province, invincible, evict, convict, conviction, victorious.

Vir (man)
1. Virtue, virile, virgin, virtually;
2. virago, virtuoso, triumvir.

Viv (live)
1. Revive, survival, convivial, vivid, vivify, vivacious, vivisection;
2. vive (le roi)
, qui vive, bon vivant, tableau vivant.

Voc, voke (call, voice)
1. Vocal, vocation, advocate, irrevocable, vociferous, provoke, revoke, evoke, convoke;
2. vocable, vocabulary, avocation, equivocal, invoke, avouch, vouchsafe.

Volve, volute (roll, turn)

1. Involve, devolve, revolver, evolution, revolutionary, revolt, voluble, volume, vault;
2. circumvolve, convolution, convolvulus.


Go back to the first page of Word Families, A-F or back to the second page of Word Families, G-P.


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Editor's note: This section of EnhanceMyVocabulary.com is excerpted and adapted from Project Gutenberg's The Century Vocabulary Builder by Creever and Bachelor.


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